The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VI.

"In the Lion of Leverpoole.

"Joseph Fisher & Elizabeth Fisher his wife late of Stillorgin near Dublin in Ireland, Yeoman, born in Elton in Chesire in old England. (Children) Moses, Joseph, Mary, and Marth Fisher.

Servants. Time to Payment in Acres of

Serve. Money. Land.

Edward Lancaster 4 4.10 50

W. Robertson 4 - 50

Ed. Doyle 4 - 50

Ben: Cilft 4 - 50

Servants. Time to Payment in Acres of

Serve. Money. Land.

Tho: Tearewood 4 - 50

Robert Kilcarth 8 - 50

Peter Long 2 6. 50

Phill Packer 4 - 50

Wm. Conduit 4 3. 50

Mary Toole 4 3. 50

Elez: Johnson 4 50 130

 

Chapter VI.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VI.

Redemptioners in Delaware.

The Duke of York made provision for the holding of indentured servants in his Colony of Delaware, in 1676. Under the law of September 22d of that year servants were not permitted to give or sell any commodity whatever during their term of service. All were compelled to work at their callings the whole day, with intervals for food and rest. Runaways could be seized and brought back. If cruelly treated by master or mistress, servants could lodge complaint, and if lamed or an eye struck out, they were to be at once freed and due recompense made. If, however, servants complained against their owners without cause, or were unable to prove their case, they were "enjoyned to serve three Months time extraordinary (Gratis) for every such ondue Complaint." No servants except slaves could be assigned over to other masters "by themselves, Executors or Administrators for above the Space of one year, unless for good reasons offered." Finally the law said, "All Servants who have served Dilligently; and faithfully to the benefit of their Masters or Dames five or Seaven yeares, shall not be Sent empty away, and if any have proved unfaithful or negligent in their Service, notwithstanding the good usage of their Masters,
Caption: The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. Irish Redemptioner's Indenture. they shall not be dismist till they have made satisfaction according to the Judgment of the Constable and Overseers of the parish where they dwell." 131

 

Chapter VI.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VI.

Irish Redemptioners.

Almost every writer who has dealt with the Provincial period of our history has had something to say about this servant slavery among the German immigrants, and yet it is rare to find allusions to the Irish servants who either came voluntarily or were sent over, who were also disposed of in precisely the same way, and who were as eminently deserving of the name of "Redemptioners" as any passengers that ever came from the Rhine country. The only distinction I have been able to find between the German and Irish trade is that those who came from the German provinces, while for the most part poor and needy, were nevertheless honest peasants and handicrafts men, who were not expatriated for any crimes, but who voluntarily forsook their homes to better themselves in Pennsylvania; while, on the other hand, those who came from Ireland did but rarely come of their own free will, were not honorable and industrious members of the body politic, but on the contrary, were largely composed of the criminal classes whom it was deemed desirable to get out of the country, and who were hurried on ship-board by any and every expedient that would accomplish that purpose.

The fact that they were called "Servants" by those who shipped them here, and by those who purchased or hired them, instead of "Redemptioners," as in the case of the Germans, has no significance whatever. The process in both cases was precisely alike. The further fact that fewer of these "Servants" came from Ireland than Germany, and the additional one that they were already citizens of Great Britain and, therefore, not so likely to attract attention, has apparently kept their coming and their conditional servitude out of general sight.

This sending of jailbirds and promiscuous malefactors was not a new idea when put into practice in Pennsylvania.

Irish indentured servants had the reputation of being incorrigible runaways. 132 Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette in almost every issue for many years contained advertisements about runaway servants.

 

Chapter VI.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VI.

Redemptioners in Virginia.

"Conditional servitude under indentures or covenants, had from the first existed in Virginia. The servant stood to his master in the relation of a debtor, bound to discharge the costs of emigration by the entire employment of his powers for the benefit of his creditor. Oppression early ensued: men who had been transported into Virginia at an expense of eight or ten pounds, were sometimes sold for forty, fifty, or even threescore pounds. The supply of white servants became a regular business; and a class of men, nic-named `spirits,' used to delude young persons, servants and idlers, into embarking for America, as to a land of spontaneous plenty. White servants came to be a usual article of traffic. They were sold in England to be transported, and in Virginia were resold to the highest bidder; like negroes, they were to be purchased on shipboard, as men buy horses at a fair. In 1672, the average price in the colonies, where five years of service were due, was about ten pounds; while a negro was worth twenty or twenty-five pounds. So usual was this manner of dealing in Englishmen, that not the Scots only, who were taken on the battlefield of Dunbar, were sent into involuntary servitude in New England, but the royalist prisoners of the battle of Worcester; and the leaders in the insurrection of Penruddoc, in spite of the remonstrances of Haselrig and Henry Vane, were shipped to America. At the corresponding period, in Ireland the crowded exportation of Irish Catholics was a frequent event, and was attended by aggravations hardly inferior to the atrocities of the African slave trade. In 1685, when nearly a thousand of the prisoners, condemned for participating in the insurrection of Monmouth, were sentenced to transportation, men of influence at court, with rival importunity, scrambled for the convicted insurgents as a merchantable commodity." 133

It is a curious fact that during the administration of Governor Thomas, 1740-1747, the enlisting of indentured or bought servants-Redemptioners-as soldiers, was permitted to be put into execution, England being then at war with Spain. It was an innovation and injurious to many. John Wright, an old and most worthy Lancaster county magistrate and member of the Assembly having denounced the practice, was dismissed from his office. Proud says: "The number of bought and indentured servants who were thus taken from their masters, as appears by the printed votes in the Assembly, were about 276, whose masters were compensated by the Assembly for their loss sustained thereby, to the amount of about 2,588." 134

 

Chapter VI.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VI.

In Ireland Also.

While it appears there were agents in England and Ireland engaged in the business of hunting up immigrants for sale and service in Pennsylvania, and that these dealers in human poverty were as base and unscrupulous as the Newlanders who zigzagged across Germany on the same mission, it is nevertheless an established fact that it was an authorized business, recognized by law as well as sanctioned by custom, and that a number of honorable men, of excellent standing in their respective communities on both sides of the water were engaged in this servant traffic, for servants these people were called and not redemptioners.
Caption: One of the Cloister Buildings at Ephrata.

Mr. Benjamin Marshall was a Philadelphia merchant, shipper and importer. His father was the celebrated diarist Chistopher Marshall, of Revolutionary memory, a born Irishman, but a true and unswerving supporter of the patriot cause. I present several letters written by Benjamin Marshall to his business correspondents in Ireland, which throw much light on this part of my subject and are of genuine historical value. The first one is as follows:

"Philadelphia, November 9, 1765.

"To Barney Egan:

"Should thee have a mind (to send) a Vessel this Way, about 100 Men and Boys Servants with as many passengers as could be got, so as to be here by the Middle or Latter end of May, I think might answer well. Stout, able Laboring men & Tradesmen out of the Country with Young Boys & Lads answers best. Women are so troublesome (that) it would be best to send few or none, as there is often so many Drawbacks on them. This I mention should thee have any intention of sending a Vessel this way for any thing."

Mr. Marshall was seemingly desirous that a ship-load of Irish Servants should be consigned to his house in the spring of 1766; so to make sure of it he wrote another letter on the same day to another Irish correspondent as follows:

"Philadelphia, November 9, 1765.

"To Thomas Murphy:

"The chief articles that answer here from Ireland which can be brought are Linnens, (which ought to go to Liverpool to receive the Bounty) Beef, Butter, Men, Women & Boys Servants the less Women the better as they are very troublesome, and the best time for Servants is about the month of May."

A year later Mr. Marshall again writes to the correspondent first named, the following letter:

"Philadelphia, June 7th, 1766.

"To Barney Egan, Esq.:

"Irish servants will be very dull such numbers have already arrived from Different parts & many more expected, that I believe it will be over done, especially as several Dutch vessels are expected here, which will always command the Market. Captain Power I believe has near sold all his, he being pretty early." 135

The fact is, this traffic was profitable all around. We have seen how the agent made it pay in securing the immigrants; how the ship masters coined money out of it in a number of ways, most of which were disreputable, and, finally, how even respectable merchants on this side of the water were prompt to take a hand in disposing of these cargoes of human beings for the money that was in the business: for when has money failed to carry the day?

I have found in a very long letter written in October, 1725, by Robert Parke, from Chester township in Delaware county, to Mary Valentine, in Ireland, the following interesting passage, which throws much light on the subject of indentured servants: the writer recommended that his old friend might indenture some of his children if he had not sufficient means to pay all the passage money.

"I desire thee may tell my old friend Samuel Thornton that he could give so much Credit to my words & find no Iffs nor ands in my Letter that in Plain terms he could not do better than Come here, for both his & his wife's trade are very good here, the best way for him to do is to pay what money he Can Conveniently Spare at that Side & Engage himself to Pay the rest at this side & when he Comes here if he Can get no friend to lay down the money for him, when it Comes to the worst, he may hire out 2 or 3 Children & I wod have him Cloath his family as well as his Small Ability will allow, thee may tell him what things are proper to bring with him both for his Sea Store & for his Use in this Country. I wod have him Procure 3 or 4 Lusty Servants & Agree to pay their passage at this Side he might sell 2 & pay the others passage with the money. * * *" 136
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Domestic Utensils. Rocking Meat Chopper, Sheep Shears, Etc. A Kitchen Outfit.

The following letters from the then British Consul in Philadelphia, are of exceeding interest. They show not only that this traffic was still active at the time they were written, but give actual figures indicating that while the arrival of German Redemptioners had greatly declined, those from Ireland were pouring in more numerously than ever.

"Philadelphia, September 22, 1789.

"To the Duke of Leeds:

"* * * Few indentured servants have arrived since the Peace 'till the present year,-In the course of which many hundreds have arrived in the Delaware from Ireland alone and more are expected. Some have been imported into Maryland but not in so great a proportion as into Pennsylvania. The trade is a lucrative one and will be pursued eagerly unless proper obstacles are thrown in the way which I humbly presume may be done upon principles perfectly consistent with the (English) constitution; having in view so humane a purpose as the providing for the convenience and comfort of the unwary emigrants so often seduced from their country by the force of artful and false suggestions. * * * They pass the term of their servitude and when that expires they for the most part continue laborers for years in the neighborhood where they have served, having no immediate means to enable them to settle lands 137 or to enable them to migrate to a distant country; the mere temporary loss of labor of this description of people is an object of great consequence to any country, but when it is considered that few of them ever return to their native land, the importance of their loss is immensely aggravated.

"P. Bond."

"Philadelphia, November 10, 1789.

"To the Duke of Leeds:

"* * * The migration hither since the Peace, my Lord, have been much greater from Ireland than from all other parts of Europe. Of 25,716 passengers (Redemptioners and Servants) imported into Pennsylvania since the Peace, 1,893 only were Germans, the rest consisting of Irish and some few Scotch. Of these (2,176) imported during the present year, 114 only were Germans. An almost total stop has been lately put to the migration hither from the Palatinate and other parts of Germany, so that the few who now come hither from that country, get into Holland by stealth and embark at Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and these are very ordinary people. * * * As to the condition and treatment of these people, many were crowded into small vessels destitute of proper room and accommodations, and abridged of the proper allowance of food. They suffered greatly and contagious diseases were often introduced into the Province by them. The terms, too, of paying the passage money were frequently departed from: passengers who embarked as Redemptioners were hurried from on ship board before the limited time for their redemption was expired, and before their friends could have notice of their arrival to interpose their relief and rescue them from servitude." 138

Phenias Bond was the British Consul at Philadelphia during 1787-1788 and 1789. He was born in Philadelphia in 1749 and was the son of Dr. Phineas Bond and Wilhelmina Moore, and a nephew of the distinguished Dr. Thomas Bond, of the University of Pennsylvania. His royalistic tendencies during the Revolution resulted in his arrest as a public enemy, but he was subsequently released on parole. From his private and public stations he was certainly acquainted with the situation. 139

James Logan did not look with a kindly eye on the arrival of any nationality save Englishmen. This dislike
Caption: Mystic Seal of the Ephrata Brethrrn. seems to have extended to the Irish, albeit he himself was Irish born. In the Logan MSS are found frequent allusions expressive of this frame of mind. In 1725 he says: "There are so many as one hundred thousand acres of land, possessed by persons, (including Germans), who resolutely set down and improved it without any right to it," and he is much at a loss to determine how to dispossess them. In 1729 he expresses himself as glad to find that Parliament is about to take measures to prevent the too free immigration to this country. In that year the twenty-shilling tax on every servant arriving was laid but even that was evaded by the captain of a ship arriving from Dublin, who landed one hundred convicts and papists at Burlington, thus escaping the tax. It looks, he says, as if Ireland is to send all her inhabitants hither, for last week not less than six ships arrived, and every day two or three arrive also. The common fear is, that if they continue to come, they will make themselves proprietors of the province. It is strange, he says, that they thus crowd where they are not wanted. But, besides, convicts are imported thither. 140 The Indians themselves were alarmed at the swarms of strangers, and he was afraid of a breach between them, for the Irish were very rough to them.

In 1730 he returns to the same subject and complains of the Scotch-Irish, "who were acting in a very disorderly manner and possessing themselves of Conestoga Manor, fifteen thousand acres, being the best land in Lancaster county. In doing this by force, they alleged that it was against the laws of God and nature, that so much land should be idle, while so many Christians wanted it to labor on, and to raise their bread." 141

There can be no doubt that some of these German and Irish immigrants gave the Proprietary a great deal of trouble. They availed themselves of all the advantages they were able to secure and very often concerned themselves very little whether they complied with the laws of the Province or not. Secretary Logan more than once refers to this matter in his correspondence. In a letter to John Penn, dated November 25, 1727, he says:

"We have many thousands of foreigners, mostly Palatinates, so called, already in ye Countrey, of whom nearly 1,500 came in this last summer; many of them are a surley people, divers Papists amongst them, & ye men generally well arm'd. We have from the North of Ireland, great numbers yearly, 8 or 9 Ships this last ffall discharged at Newcastle. Both these sorts sitt frequently down on any spott of vancant Land they can find, without asking questions; the last Palatines say there will be twice the number next year, & ye Irish say ye same of their People; last week one of these latter (ye Irish) applied to me, in the name of 400, as he said, who depended all on me, for directions where they should settle. They say the Proprietor invited People to come & settle his Countrey, that they are come for that end, & must live; both they and the Palatines pretend they would buy, but not one in twenty has anything to pay with." 142

In 1729, John, Thomas and Richard Penn wrote to Logan as follows concerning this vexed question:

"As to the Palatines, you have often taken notice of to us, wee apprehend have Lately arrived in greater Quantities than may be consistent with the welfare of the Country, and therefore, applied ourselves to our Councill to find a proper way to prevent it, the result of which was, that an act of assembly should be got or endeavoured at, and sent us over immediately, when we would take sufficient Care to get it approved by the King. 143 With this resolution we acquainted the Govenour, by Capt. Stringfellow, to Maryland, the 25th Febry, a Duplicate of which we have since sent by another shipp, both woh times we also enclos'd Letters for thee; but as to any other people coming over who are the subjects of the British Crown, we can't Conceive it anyways practicable to prohibit it: but supposing they are natives of Ireland & Roman Catholicks, they ought not to settle till they have taken the proper Oaths to the King, & Promis'd Obedience to the Laws of the Country, and, indeed, we Can't Conceive it unreasonable that if they are Inclinable to settle, They should be oblig'd to settle, either Backwards to
Caption: The German Immigration into Pennsylvania. A Redemptioner's Certificate. Sasquehannah or north in yi Country beyond the other settlements, as we had mentioned before in relation to the Palatines; but we must desire Care may be taken that they are not suffered to settle towards Maryland, on any account." 144

Just as the Ubii, a German tribe was moved to the banks of the Rhine by the Romans, that they might serve as a guard and outpost against invaders, 145 so did the Government of Penn also try to settle them on the frontiers as a guard against the incursions of the Red men.

Further light is thrown on this interesting question by an original manuscript in the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It is "A List of Servts Indented on Board the Pennsylvania Packet Capt. Peter Osborne for Philadelphia the 15th day of March, 1775. Coming from a British port, it is of course not mentioned by Rupp nor in Volume XVII. of the second series of State Archives. It gives a list of thirty-seven names of tradesmen, evidently all English, Scotch or Irish, with the amount due the ship owner and the sums for which they were sold, as well as the names of the buyers. This list is too long to be given here, but we will quote a few items:

Benj. Boswell, Baker, Due 21.4 Sold for 18.

John Haynes, Hair Dresser, Due 22.4 Sold for 20.

John Thomas, Smith, Due 26.4 Sold for 20.

William Avery, Taylor, Due 21.4 Sold for 20.

Wm Edwards, Painter, Due 36.4 Sold for 20.

Wm. Chase, Cordwainer, Due 23.4 Sold for 19.

James Vanlone, Watchfinisher, Due 17.5 Sold for 21.

Wm Longwood, Groom, Due 23.4 Sold for 20.

Geo. Warren, Labourer, Due 14.7 Sold for 24.

John Longan, Husbandman, Due 19.5 Sold for 19.

Wm Mitchell, Stone Mason, Due 21.4 Sold for 20.

We here get a glimpse at the sums these servants were sold for, and find that in a majority of cases the amount was less than the cost incurred by their passage across the ocean.
Caption: Razor Case, Razor and Lancet. Just how this traffic was profitable to the shipmaster or the broker, is not evident from the meager revelations furnished by the paper itself. The explanation probably is that there was a large profit on the extra charges always set against each immigrant, and that a reduction of a few pounds could well be made on each one sold and still leave a handsome surplus on the investment. From other sources we learn that when a passenger died, leaving no relative behind to look after his possessions, his chest-and a great oaken chest was the almost invariable accompaniment of the German immigrant-was seized by the shipmaster and all its contents appropriated. Even when young children were left by the deceased, their rights were often ignored and whatever of value there may have been was confiscated in the rough, sailor-like fashion of the times, without the slightest regard for the rights of these unprotected and helpless ones. The heart often sinks at the recital of these inhuman proceedings practiced because there were none to protest or defend.

It deserves to be stated that many who came here and were well to do, bringing their servants along, often lost the standing in the community they at first held. They were unable to maintain their old social standing against the democratic spirit which even then prevailed, and in many instances their humble servitors, the Redemptioners, taught to labor in the stern school of adversity, prospered, and in the second and third generations, by their thrift and industry, took the places once held by their old masters.
Caption: Arms of City of London.
Caption: Street Scene in Old Germantown.

 

Chapter VII.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VII.

Christopher Saur's notable Letters to Governor Morris, pleading for Legislation looking to the better Protection of German Immigrants in General and the German Redemptioners in Particular. "They, wandering here, made barren forests bloom, And the new soil a happier robe assume: They planned no schemes that virtue disapproves. They robbed no Indian of his native groves, But, just to all, beheld their tribes increase, Did what they could to bind the world in peace, And, far retreating from a selfish band, Bade Freedom flourish in this foreign land."
Caption: Seal of William Penn.

Christopher saur did not confine his efforts for rendering aid to his countrymen to the columns of his wide-awake newspaper. Nor did he confine his energy and activity to words alone. He went among the newly arrived Redemptioners and rendered whatever material assistance was in his power. In certain cases he gave money to relieve their necessities; in others he saw that they were cared for when such care was required, and in still others, the sick and starving wretches were taken to his own home and those of his friends to be cared for and nursed back to health there. If they died, he saw that they received Christian burial.

But, while ever on the alert to render assistance of this practical kind, he was at work in still other ways, his efforts all being directed towards the end so near his loyal German nature. His name will always be revered by Pennsylvania-Germans for his unselfish work in the interest of his countrymen, and the two letters in their behalf, addressed to Governor Morris, alone constitute a monument to his memory as enduring as brass or the pyramids of Egypt. They are here given in grateful memory of his excellent service in the cause of humanity.

 

Chapter VII.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter VII.

Christopher Saur's First Letter to Governor Morris on the Trials and Wrongs of the Early German Immigrants.

"Germantown, Pa., March 15th, 1755.

"Honored and Beloved Sir:-

"Confidence in your wisdom and clemency made me so free as to write this letter to you. I would not have it that anybody should know of these private lines, otherwise it would have become me to get a hand able to write in a proper manner and style to a person as your station requireth.

"It is now thirty years since I came to this Province, out of a country where no liberty of conscience was, nor humanity reigned in the house of my then country lord, and where all the people are owned with their bodies to the lord there, and are obliged to work for him six days in every week, viz.: three days with a horse, and three days with a hoe, shovel or spade; or if he cannot come himself, he must send somebody in his place. And when I came to this Province and found everything to the contrary from where I came from, I wrote largely to all my friends and acquaintances of the civil and religious liberty, privileges, etc. and of the goodness I have heard and seen, and my letters were printed and reprinted and provoked many a thousand people to come to this Province, and many thanked the Lord for it, and desired their friends also to come here.

"Some years the price was five pistoles per head freight, and the merchants and the captains crowded for passengers, finding more profit by passengers than by goods, etc.

"But the love for great gain caused Steadman to lodge the poor passengers like herrings, and as too many had not room between decks, he kept abundance of them upon deck; and sailing to the Southward, where the people were at once out of their climate, and for the want of water and room, became sick and died very fast, in such a manner that in one year no less than two thousand were buried in the seas and in Philadelphia. Steadman at that time bought a license in Holland that no captain or merchant could load any as long as he had not two thousand loaded. This murderous trade made my heart ache, especially, when I heard that there was more profit by their death than by carrying them alive. I thought of my provoking letters being partly the cause of so many people's deaths. I wrote to the magistrate at Rotterdam, and immediately the "Monopolium" was taken from John Steadman.

"Our Legislature was also petitioned, and a law was made as good as it is, but was never executed. Mr. Spofford, an old, poor captain, was made overseer for the vessels that came loaded with passengers, whose salary came to from $200 to $300 a year, for concealing the fact that sometimes the poor people had but twelve inches place and not half bread nor water. Spofford died and our Assembly chose one Mr. Trotter who left every ship slip, although he knew that a great many people had no room at all, except in the long boat, where every man perished. There were so many complaints that many in Philadelphia and almost all in Germantown signed a petition that our Assembly might give that office to one Thomas Say, an English merchant, at Philadelphia, of whom we have the confidence that he would take no bribe for concealing what the poor people suffered; or if they will not turn Mr. Trotter out of office, to give him as assistant one Daniel Mackinett, a shopkeeper in Philadelphia, who speaks Dutch and English, who might speak with the people in their language, but in vain, except they have done what I know not.

"Among other grievances the Germans suffer is one viz: that the ignorant Germans agree fairly with merchants at Holland for seven pistoles and a half 146; when they come to Philadelphia the merchants make them pay what they please, and take at least nine pistoles. The poor people on board are prisoners. They durst not go ashore, or have their chests delivered, except they allow in a bond or pay what they owe not; and when they go into the country, they loudly complain there, that no justice is to be had for poor strangers. They show their agreements, wherein is fairly mentioned that they are to pay seven pistoles and a half to Isaac and Zacharay Hoke, at Rotterdam, or their order at Philadelphia, etc. This is so much practiced, that of at least 2,000 or 3,000 pounds in each year the country is wronged. It was much desired that among wholesome laws, such a one may be made that when vessels arrive, a commissioner might be appointed to inspect their and agreement and judge if 7 pistoles make not seven and a half. Some of the Assemblymen were asked whether there was no remedy? They answered, `The law is such that what is above forty shillings must be decided at court, and every one must make his own cause appear good and stand a trial. A very poor comfort for two or three thousand wronged people, to live at the discretion of their merchants. They so long to go ashore, and fill once their belly, that they submit and pay what is demanded; and some are sighing, some are cursing, and some believe that their case differs very little from such as fall into the hands of highwaymen who present a pistol upon their breast and are desired to give whatever the highwaymen pleaseth; and who can hinder them thinking so? I, myself, thought a commission could be ordered in only such cases, but I observed that our assembly has more a mind to prevent the importation of such passengers than to do justice to them; and seeing that your honor is not of the same mind, and intends to alter the said bill, I find myself obliged to let your Honor know the main points, without which nothing will be done to the purpose.

"I was surprised to see the title of the bill, which, in my opinion, is not the will of the crown, nor of the proprietors; neither is it the will of the Lord, who gives an open way that the poor and distressed, the afflicted, and any people
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. J. F. Bachse, Photo. Pennsylvania-German Enterprise. Interior of An Old Boring-Mill on the Tulfehocken. Here Rifle Barrels Were Made During the Revolution. may come to a place where there is room for them; and if there is no room for any more, there is land enough in our neighborhood, as there are eight or nine counties of Dutch (German) people in Virginia, where many out of Pennsylvania are removed to. Methinks it will be proper to let them come, and let justice be done them. The order of the Lord is such: `Defend the poor and fatherless; do justice to the afflicted and needy, deliver the poor and needy, and rid them out of the land of the wicked.'- Ps. 82.

"Beloved sir, you are certainly a servant of the Lord our God, and I do believe you are willing to do what lies in your power; but I am ready to think, that as you left the bill to your councillors, you will not be so fully informed of the worst of the grievances, as one of them has a great share of the interest. If these are not looked particularly into, that which is the most complained of viz: that the captains often hurry them away without an agreement, or the agreement is not signed, or, if a fair agreement is written, signed or sealed, it will not be performed, and they must pay whatever they please; and when the people's chests are put in stores until they go and fetch money by their friends, and pay for what they agreed upon, and much more, and demand their chest, they will find it opened and plundered of part or all; or the chest is not at all to be found wherefore they have paid, and no justice for them, because they have no English tongue, and no money to go to law with such as they are; and that we have no such an officer as will, or can speak with the people but will rather take pay for concealing their grievances-and who will speak to such an one, as it stands?