The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter IV.

The Newlanders or Soul-Sellers.-Men who made a Business of sending Redemptioners to Pennsylvania.-How their Nefarious Traffic was carried on in the Fatherland.-Letters from Pastor Muhlenberg and Others. "Yet here sits peace; and rest sits here. These wide-boughed oaks, they house wise men- The student and the sage austere; And men of wondrous thought and ken. Here men of God in holy guise Invoke the peace of Paradise."
Caption: Seal of Germantown.

Before this influx of persons willing to sell their personal services to pay the expenses of their transportation had been long in operation, the possibilities of turning it to profitable account were considered by seafaring and other men, but more especially by a class of sharpers who, having come to this country with a full knowledge of the desire of so many of their countrymen in Germany also to migrate, availed themselves of that fact, and of the circumstances surrounding it, to make money out of it.

These man-traffickers or Seelen-Hendler, as the elder Saur denominated them, were known to the Dutch as "Zeilverkoopers," that is, soul-sellers, but among the Germans themselves more generally as Newlanders. These pestiferous fellows associated and entered into agreements with sea captains, merchants and ship owners to handle this immigrant traffic. They were almost without exception persons who had left their country for their country's good, had come to Pennsylvania as mere adventurers and, after taking in the situation thoroughly, adopted schemes of rascality whereby they might defraud their more honest and unsuspecting countrymen.

Of themselves they could not carry out their nefarious plans, but wherever such rogues are found still others will be ready to aid and abet them in their schemes. These base coparceners were found in ship masters, ship owners and commission merchants, on both sides of the Atlantic. The Newlanders went up and down the Rhine and the adjacent country, well dressed, pretending to be prosperous merchants in Philadelphia, and used all their powers of persuasion to induce the humble peasantry to dispose of their small belongings and embark for the land of promise. 118 They commonly received a commission of seven dollars per head for every immigrant they could bring to the ship owner for embarcation, and a free passage for the Newlander himself besides. When two, three, four and five hundred souls embarked on a single vessel, it will readily be seen what a profitable business it was that these scoundrels were engaged in. Being so lucrative, it is little wonder that so many followed it. We are told that in the year 1749 alone, upwards of one hundred and thirty were engaged in it. 119 Sometimes, however, these precious scoundrels got their deserts. Here and there a German prince was to be found who was well acquainted with the nefarious character of these men, and the disreputable business they were engaged in. They retained an affection for their subjects even though the latter were leaving the Fatherland by hundreds and thousands. When, therefore, these Newlanders made themselves especially obnoxious some of them were seized, imprisoned and put to hauling dirt on the streets and other menial occupations. 120


Chapter IV.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter IV.

Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg's Account.

Pastor H. M. Muhlenberg, who was ever solicitous for the well-being of his misguided and maltreated countrymen, as was to be expected, also pays his respects to these Newlanders. In a letter written to a friend in Halle, in 1763, he says concerning them: "I cannot forbear making some remarks touching Newlanders, in order to caution our German countrymen. I do not speak of such as return to Germany for their patrimony, or to collect money for others, who reside here, and who sometimes use the
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Witmer's Bridge Across the Conestoga River, Built 1800. money collected to purchase merchandise, which they sell in our markets. This is a lawful transaction. * * * In speaking of the Newlanders I mean such as are not disposed to support themselves honestly. I mean those who solicit powers of attorney to collect money in Germany for others, they having none to collect for themselves-who are a the same time in the service of others-urging upon Germans, till they prevail upon them, by means fair or foul, to forsake their Vaterland and immigrate to the New World. The usual course pursued by them is, first to seek the acquaintance of merchants in Holland, from whom they receive free passage, also a stipulated sum of money, for every family or unmarried person, they can prevail on to leave their homes for Holland. To accomplish their mission successfully, they resort to various artifices. As a studied prelude to the tragedy, they appear gorgeously attired, make an imposing display with their watches, using every means to create the impression that they are persons of immense wealth. 121

"Thus the credulous are often deceived, become anxious to emigrate and live in so prosperous and rich a country as Pennsylvania. By these plausible representations and glowing descriptions of America, the impression is made that in Pennsylvania the Elysian fields are to be found- that every desirable vegetable grows spontaneously; hills and mountains are pregnant with unalloyed gold and silver; that the fountains gush copious and ceaseless streams of milk and honey. The Newlanders aver that in Pennsylvania the menial servant becomes the independent lord; the spinster the perfect lady; the laborious husband soon plays nobleman at ease; the plodding care-worn peasant and the toiling mechanic are created Lord Barons. * * * Many are naturally disposed to improve their temporal condition, consequently they desire to live in such a country. In Europe the country is overburdened with people-the labor of the poorer class is not in demand-the taxes are enormous-the service to the lords of the manor intolerable. Under such circumstances, the Newlander easily prevails with many to leave their hearths and homes. In haste the Germans convert their effects into money, honestly pay their debts, if they have any. The balance of the money is placed into the hands of the Newlander for safe keeping. Finally they enter upon their exodus from home. The expenses of the Rhine passage are charged to their account. On their arrival in Holland, if detained there, Dutch merchants advance the poorer classes some money, which is added to the bill for contingencies. The several sums with a poll tax 122 and ocean fare, swell the amount enormously. Before immigrants embark they must sign articles of agreement written in English, and the Newlanders persuade the people that they are their impartial friends to see that they have justice done them. The more human freight the ship captains can crowd into a ship the more profitable it is for them, if they do not die on the way, otherwise they may lose by it. For that reason the ships are kept clean and all kinds of precautions are taken to keep the passengers in good health, and to bring them to market in good condition. In former years they were not so careful, and allowed many to die. When parents died on ship board leaving children behind them the captains and Newlanders acted as guardians of the children, and took what property was left by the parents so that when the children reached the shore, they were sold to pay their and their parents' passage money. Children under
Caption: Autograph Entry of Rev. H. M. Muhlenberg in Trappe Records, 1742. six are gratuitously disposed of. The chests and goods of the deceased are sold; the money thus realized squares the account. Such heaven-abhorrent deception, led to the formation of an association in Philadelphia to assist as far as was possible, and protect them in their right. So soon as the ships in Holland are fully freighted they set sail. The hardships that must be encountered are made lighter through the sweet hope that they speedily reach the new world and attain their longed for Paradise.

"Finally the ship reaches Philadelphia, where merchants and ship owners receive the bills of freight and articles of agreement subscribed by the immigrants. Before debarking, passengers are examined by a medical officer, whether they are free from contagious diseases. If all is right the immigrants are marched to the Court House to take the oath of fealty to the King of Great Britain; after which they are taken back to the ship. Public notice is then given that German passengers will be sold for their freight. Those having means to pay are allowed to leave the vessel. To the less fortunate-unbemittelte-without means, the ship is a mart. Purchasers make their selections, agree afterwards with their pre‰mpted servants for a stipulated period of service. Young and unmarried persons of both sexes are sold first and their future condition depends much on their master's disposition, situation and rank in society. Married people, widows, and the infirm are dull sale. If they have children these are sold, and the parents' fare charged to the children's account, and the children are consequently obliged to serve a longer time. Children are in this way not infrequently separated forever from their parents. Some children are sold to English masters and in this way forget their mother tongue. By having their children sold, parents are allowed to leave the ship. Still, their condition is unenviable; they are destitute, poorly clad, the infirmities of age often weighing them down, making them appear as if they had emerged from a sepulchre.

"Many of them are compelled through their poverty, to beg their bread from door to door from their German countrymen. The English usually close their doors against them, through fear of infectious diseases. These things cause one's heart to bleed, to see and hear fellow mortals, who had been persuaded to leave a Christian country, lamenting, weeping, wringing their hands in sad despair, because of their misery, and the dispersion of their children. Little did the parents anticipate such things.

"Some having become exasperated beyond measure, invoke the angry elements of heaven and conjure up the denizens of hell, to crush to atoms the Newlanders, merchants in Holland and ship owners who so grossly deceived them. As those cannot hear the denunciations of their victims, they are of course not moved to compassion. Many of the Newlanders, who both hear and see these things, only laugh at their victims, giving them the taunting comfort which the priests of old gave to Judas Iscariot- `what is that to us, see thou to it.' The children of poor parents, if kept in hardship, learning that because of the non-sale of father or mother they have to serve the longer, often became incensed, yea even embittered against their own parents." 123

The immigrants that met with the readiest sale and brought the highest prices were mechanics and laboring men. That was the kind of labor most in demand both in city and country. Of course, when these conditions were united with good health and youth, or early middle age, the servant was not long in finding a purchaser and master. Old men and women were not desired, because their days of greatest usefulness were behind them.

There were Newlanders who had still other men or agents under them, engaged in this nefarious practice. Dr. Ernest Otto Hopp, of Germany, in his book on this German slavery in this country, tells of one Heerbrand who achieved unusual notoriety as a procurer of ignorant Germans for America. He had a considerable number of men in his pay who were continually procuring victims, kidnapping beggars and vagrants who had no connections, paying two florins for every one delivered to him. He was also a ship captain and is said to have alone brought six hundred of these people to America.

Ship captains had a lien on their passengers until the ships' charges were paid, and Professor Kalm in his travels tells that when he reached Philadelphia in September, 1748, on the ship Mary, upon going on shore with the captain, the latter turned to his mate and charged him "not to let any one of the twenty-three Germans and their families go out of the vessel unless he paid for his passage, or some one else did it for him." 124

Gottlieb Mittelberger also pays his respects to these rascals in his usual vigorous and off-hand manner. After saying that the large emigration to America is due to the persuasions and deceptions practiced by the Newlanders, he says:

"These men-thieves inveigle people of every rank and profession, among them many soldiers, scholars, artists and mechanics. They rob the princes and lords of their subjects and take them to Rotterdam or Amsterdam to be sold there. They receive there from their merchants for every person of ten years and over 3 florins or a ducat; whereas the merchants get in Philadelphia 60, 70 or 80 florins for such a person, in proportion as said person has incurred more or less debts during the voyage. When such a Newlander has collected a `transport,' and if it does not suit him to accompany them to America, he stays behind, passes the winter in Holland or elsewhere; in the spring he again obtains money in advance for emigrants from his merchants, goes to Germany again, pretending that he had come from Pennsylvania with the intention of purchasing all sorts of merchandise which he was going to take there.

"Frequently these Newlanders say that they had received powers of attorney from some countrymen or from
Caption: Kalm's Book on North America. Fac-Simile of Title-Page of Peter Kalm's Travels in North America. the authorities of Pennsylvania to obtain legacies or inheritances for these countrymen; and that they would avail themselves of this good and sure opportunity to take their friends, brothers or sisters, or even their parents with them; and it has often happened that such old people followed them, trusting to the persuasion of these Newlanders that they would be better provided for.

"Such old people they seek to get away with them in order to entice other people to follow them. Thus they have seduced many away who said if such and such relatives of theirs went to America, they would risk it too. These men-thieves resort to various tricks, never forgetting to display their money before the poor people, but which is nothing else but a bait from Holland, and accursed blood-money.

"When these men-thieves persuade persons of rank, such as nobles, learned or skilled people who cannot pay
Caption: Lesser Seal of Province (Used by Supreme Court). their passage and cannot give security, these are treated just like ordinary poor people, and must remain on board the ship till some one comes and buys them from the captain, and when they are released at last from the ship, they must serve their lords and masters, by whom they have been bought, like common day-laborers. Their rank, skill and learning avail them nothing, for here none but laborers and mechanics are wanted. But the worst is that such people, who are not accustomed to work, are treated to blows and cuffs, like cattle, till they have learned the hard work. Many a one, on finding himself thus shamefully deceived by the Newlanders, has shortened his own life, or has given way to despair, so that he could not be helped, or has run away, only to fare worse afterwards than before.

"It often happens that the merchants in Holland make a secret contract with their captains and the Newlanders, to the effect that the latter must take the ships with their human freight to another place in America, and not to Pennsylvania where these people want to go, if they think they can elsewhere find a better market for them. Many a one who has a good friend or acquaintance, or a relative in Pennsylvania to whose helping care he has trusted, finds himself thus grievously disappointed in consequence of such infamous deception, being separated from friends whom he will never see again in this or in that country. Thus emigrants are compelled in Holland to submit to the wind and to the captain's will, because they cannot know at sea where the ship is steered to. But all this is the fault of the Newlander and of some unscrupulous dealers in human flesh in Holland.

"Many people who go to Philadelphia, entrust their money, which they have brought with them from their homes, to these Newlanders, but these thieves often remain in Holland with the money, or sail from there with another ship to another English colony, so that the poor defrauded people, when they reach the country, have no other choice but to serve or sell their children, if they have any, only to get away from the ship.

"The following remarkable case may serve as an example. In 1753 a noble lady, N. V., came with her two half grown daughters and a young son to Philadelphia. On the trip down the Rhine she entrusted more than 1,000 rix-dollars to a Newlander who was well known to her. But when the ship on which the lady had taken passage, started from Holland, this villain remained behind with the money; in consequence of which the lady found herself in such want and distress that her two daughters were compelled to serve. In the following spring this poor lady sent her son to Holland to search for the embezzler of her money, but at the time of my departure, in 1754, nothing had as yet been heard of him, and it was even rumored that the young gentleman had died during his voyage." 125

It is not easy to tell of all the hardships, indignities and injustices that were practiced upon these people, not always, it is true, but often. Many to whom they were indentured were wholly unscrupulous, and intent upon getting everything possible out of them, no matter what the terms of the indentures were. When possible such papers were treated as if they did not exist. They were kept beyond the time of service agreed upon. They were not sent to school according to promise, and although both German and English were to be taught them, only the latter language was employed. Sometimes they were restrained from attending church. Hard masters there were who often treated them cruelly, requiring labor at their hands which they were not bound to perform. The avarice of the masters frequently kept them from providing the necessary sustenance and clothing for their helpless servants. 126


Chapter V.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter V.

The Testimony of the Newspapers concerning the Traffic in Redemptioners in the Eighteenth Century.-A mere Article of Merchandise in the Market and Disposed of to the first Bidder ready to Pay the Price Demanded. "Ein armer Wand'rer bin ich hier' Und oftmals Schwer die Noth; Oft weh und einsam ist es mir-Denn Wieb und Kind sind tod! So singe ich das Trauerlied-Und Sehnsucht drck't mich sehr, Und in mei'm Hertz schl„ft Weib und Kind, Wie Perlen tief i'm Meer!"
Caption: Arms of Rotterdam.

The Redemptioners never had a more sincere, able or faithful friend than Christopher Saur the elder, the famous Germantown printer and publisher. He was one of the most prominent of all the Germans in the Province during many years. A godly man, his heart was alive to the wrongs and indignities that were heaped upon so many of his unfortunate countrymen. His presence in or near the city of Philadelphia made him acquainted from day to day with what was going on among these unfortunate people. As the publisher of a German newspaper, he took occasion to
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Domestic Industries. Milk Cellar and Spring. Shed for Fruit Drying (Schnitz-House). keep this human traffic and everything connected with it before the public in the columns of his paper, Der Hoch Deutsche Pennsylvanische Berichte. Almost every number during the seasons of arrival, had paragraphs relating to the coming of vessels, the condition of the immigrants, their treatment, their wrongs and of much else which he no doubt hoped would have a salutary effect upon the public conscience, and in that way lead to the amelioration of the hard conditions under which they voyaged and their treatment upon their arrival.

Not only as throwing much light on various phases of the Redemptioner traffic, but also as showing Saur's unwearied assiduity in stirring up the public to better the condition of the German Redemptioner immigrants, a series of extracts from his newspaper are here given, and also some from The American Weekly Mercury, an English newspaper. 127

From The American Weekly Mercury, Philadelphia, September 1, 1720:

"On the 30 (arrived) the ship Laurel John Coppel, from Leverpool and Cork with 240 odd Palatinate Passengers come here to settle."

The above is the earliest record of any ship carrying Palatines I have met. Additional interest attaches to its arrival as it is most probably the vessel on which the well-known clergyman, Rev. J. Ph. Boehm, came to this country, August 30, 1720.

The first public notice of the Redemptioner traffic that I have found is in The American Weekly Mercury, published in Philadelphia in 1722; it reads as follows:

"Thomas Denham to his good country friends adviseth: That he has some likely servants to dispose of. One hundred Palatines for five years, at £10 a head."

From The American Weekly Mercury, November 7, 1728:

"Those Palatines who have hitherto neglected to pay for their passages in the ship James Goodwill, are to take notice that if they do not pay me on board of the said ship, or to Charles Reid of Philadelphia the sum from them respectively due, the 20th day of this Instant November, they will be proceeded against according to Law by David Crocket."

From The American Weekly Mercury, November 7, 1728:

"Just arrived from London, in the ship Borden, William Harbert, Commander, a parcel of young likely men servants, consisting of Husbandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, Weavers, Smiths, Brick-makers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, Taylers, Stay-Makers, Butchers, Chair makers, and several other trades, and are to be sold very reasonable either for ready money, wheat Bread, or Flour, by Edward Hoone, in Philadelphia."

As the above ship is not listed among those enumerated in Rupp's Thirty Thousand Names nor among those in Vol. XVII. of the second series of Pennsylvania Archives it is most probable that they were Irish, Scotch and English immigrants who, as has already been stated, were compelled to pass through all the conditions of servitude imposed upon the Germans, and who came under like impoverished circumstances, but not to be registered.

From The American Weekly Mercury, February 18, 1729:

"Lately arrived from London, a parcel of very likely English Servants, men and women, several of the men Tradesmen; to be sold reasonable and Time allowed for payment. By Charles Read of Philadelphia, or Capt. John Ball, on board his ship, at Anthony Millkinson's Wharf."

From The American Weekly Mercury, May 22, 1729:

"There is just arrived from Scotland, a parcel of choice Scotch Servants; Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers and ploughmen, some for five and others for seven years; Imported by James Coults, they are on board a sloop lying opposite to the Market Street Wharf, where there is a boat constantly attending to carry any one on board that wants to see them.

"N. B. The said James Coults is to be spoke with, at Andrew Bradford's, at the sign of the Bible, in Second Street."

From The American Weekly Mercury, May 22, 1729:

"Just arrived from London in the ship Providence, Capt, Jonathan Clarke, a parcel of very likely servants, most Tradesmen, to be sold on reasonable Terms; the ship now lies at Mr. Lawrence's Wharf, where either the Master or the said Lawrence are to be spoke with."

From The American Weekly Mercury, August 28, 1729.

"Lately arrived from Plymouth in the ship John and Anne, Thomas Warcut, Master, a parcel of likely servants on board the said ship, to be sold reasonable for money or country produce; credit given if required.

"The above named ship is now lying at William Fishbourn's Wharf and will be ready to sail for Plymouth in three weeks after."

From The Pennsylvania Gazette, June, 1742:

"To be sold. A likely Servant Woman, having three years and a half to serve. She is a good spinner."

From Der Hoch Deutsche Pennsylvanische Berichte, Philadelphia, February 16, 1745:

"We have heard of the ship Argyle, Captain Stettman, from Rotterdam for Philadelphia, with Germans. It was one hundred hours distant from England when it met two Spanish war ships which put the Captain and some passengers on a Holland ship by which they were put on shore in England. Another ship, the H. Andra, Captain Braum, bound for Philadelphia with 300 Germans, who reached Charleston, Carolina; some of the passengers have arrived in Philadelphia who each had still three doubloons to pay; others reached New York who had money and some of these are still expected here. It seems that while the ship is again being loaded it is convenient for them to journey here. These people say the Captain offered in case they would sign a new contract, he would convey them to Charleston within four days; but in case they refused then they must travel eight weeks more to Philadelphia. But if they insist in going direct to that city he would let them go hungry, he not having enough food to feed them.

"Still another ship with Germans bound for Philadelphia, was already in the Delaware but went back and entered the Susquehanna and so reached Maryland where the ship will again be loaded.

"Another ship reached Philadelphia with 400 Germans and it is said not many over 50 remain alive. They received their bread ration every two weeks and many ate in 4, 5 and 6 days what should have done them 15 days. And when they get no cooked food for 8 days their bread was all so much the sooner; and when they had to wait 3 days over the three weeks, those without money became enfeebled, and those who had money could get plenty of flour from the captain, at three pence sterling per pound and a quart bottle of wine for seven thalers. A certain man whose wife was nearly famished bought every day meal and wine for her and their children, thus kept them alive: another man who had eaten all his week's bread asked the captain for a little bread, but in vain. He then came to the captain and requested the latter to throw them overboard at once rather than allow them to die by inches. He brought his meal sack to the captain and asked him to put a small quantity into it: the captain took the bag, put in some sand and stones and returned it to the man. The latter shed some tears, laid down and died, together with his wife. The living had as much to pay as before for the bread that should have been given to the dead. When such people have no Christian love or mercy on each other, we may well ask if there is no justice in this bepraised land, and we will be answered, Yes, but he who does not know the road thither, must pay dearly for his experience. After having fasted long, no man is ready to bell the cat. Should Cain return to earth in our time and interview a good lawyer, with gold enough, he would be able to prove he had not even seen Abel."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, May 16, 1748:

"Robert and Amos Strettle, of Philadelphia, announce
Caption: Saur's German Newspaper. Fac-Simile of Part of First Page of Christoph Saur's Paper, The First Permanent German Paper Published in America. that their contracts with their debtors expire on June 30, and all the Germans who came to Philadelphia from Rotterdam on their ship and have not paid their passage money will be legally proceeded against unless they pay by that time."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Philadelphia, August 1, 1749:

"A letter has been received in Germantown, written in the beginning of August, 1749, in Virginia, in which two potters say they sailed from Rotterdam for Philadelphia. Their company contracted with the Captain of the ship to pay ten doubloons for their passage, but he deceived them and carried them all to Virginia, and sold them for five years. They ask whether there is no help for them, as they never entered into such a contract. It appears the ship belonged to the Captain and was not consigned to any agent in Philadelphia."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, November 16, 1749:

"The ships on which so many persons had put their chests, and which were so long in coming over, arrived on the 9 and 11 of the present month in Philadelphia. We hear that many of these chests were broken open. It is customary that when a ship captain receives goods and wares for delivery, he must turn them over to the owner as he receives them when the freight is paid, and what is lacking must be made good by him. But the Germans pay and must pay when their chests are robbed or when famished with hunger, even though their contracts are expressly to the contrary."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, December 1, 1749:

"It is well known that after ships arrive in Philadelphia with Newlanders, there is always a new crop of spurious twenty-shilling Philadelphia bills in circulation, dated August 10, 1739."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, July 16, 1750:

"During the past summer Abraham B„r, of Madedeche, took with him on his trip to Rotterdam, two beggar boys who bound themselves to serve seven years for their passage money. When they reached here they learned that they could not be made to serve longer than 4 years or until the age of 21 years."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, No. 123, August 16, 1750:

"Six ships with Irish servants have arrived at Philadelphia, and two ships with German Newcomers. Some say 18 more are on their way here; others say 24 and still others 10,000 persons."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, December 16, 1750:

"Capt. Hasselwood has arrived from Holland with the latest ship that brought Germans. It is the fourteenth that has come laden with Germans this year. 4,317 have registered in the Court House. (The last one mutinied against the captain and all the chests of the salesmen and themselves are under arrest.) Besides these, 1,000 servants and passengers arrived from Ireland and England."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, June 16, 1752:

"On the 5th of the present month a ship with a few Germans reached Philadelphia. It is a year since they left Germany and they were five months in reaching the Delaware, which being frozen, they sailed for the island of Antiqua in the West Indies. They suffered much from lack
Caption: Bread Tray, Knife, and Pie Crust Scorer. of food and from scurvy, from which many died, among the latter being the captain himself. Out of 200 passengers only 19 survived, besidesthe helmsman and two sailors. It is said they were Suabians and it became a second nature to them to use an oath to every second word, and they wished to each other that thunder and lightning would strike them. The kind of religion these people have is not known, but they use a hundred thousand cuss words."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Boston, September 25, 1752:

"On last Tuesday a ship arrived from Holland with 300 Germans, men, women and children. Some of them will settle in Germantown, and the rest in the eastern part of the Province. There were 40 births on board during the voyage, Among the mechanics and artists were a great many glass workers, and a factory will be established for them as soon as possible."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, New York, October 16, 1752:

"During the past week came Captain Pikeman with Palatines."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, October 16, 1752:

"From a letter received from Charleston, South Carolina, we learn that a vessel reached that harbor after a voyage of 18 weeks' duration. The people were all suffering from hunger and thirst. Another vessel that came from Rotterdam by way of Liverpool, also arrived with a cargo of Palatines, all of whom were fresh and well. When the Captains are stingy and save the money that should be used in buying provisions, the poor passengers die of starvation, while their friends must pay for their deaths. If however the Captains are liberal and buy sufficient food, then it is just to pay for the food."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, December 1, 1752:

"While tyrannical Sea Captains for many years past kept the poor German immigrants in such a plight, that many of them died, the Government of the Province passed a law that when the newly arrived Germans made complaint hereafter, that they were not allowed the room on shipboard that was contracted for, nor the food agreed upon, the Captain should pay a fine of ten pounds. But nevertheless we hear that although the poor people almost died of hunger: when they reached the river Delaware they were informed by the Newlanders that visitors would arrive and would ask them whether they had room enough, and sufficient to eat, then they should all exclaim Yes! yes! but if they complained, they would not be allowed to land under four weeks' time. When the passengers are therefore tired of the sea and ship and of the want of food, all who were able to do so called out, Yes! yes. If they complained after they landed, concerning a lack of food and space, then there was no help for them. The tyrannical captains would rather spend a hundred pounds among Newlanders and visitors than a thousand pounds in fines."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, March 1, 1753:

"Captain Hyman Thompson, being about to return to Europe, all those who came over on his Ship, and are still indebted to him, are notified that the accounts have been placed in the hands of Mrs. Carl and Alexander Stedmann. If they do not come forward promptly they will be legally proceeded against and put into the costs."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, September 16, 1755:

"Many Redemptioners having joined the army in Philadelphia, they will again be delivered to their former masters. They are sharply questioned whether they are servants, but when they declare they are not, when they really are, they are whipped."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Germantown, February 16, 1756:

"We have heard during the past fall that a ship with Germans was driven on the coast of France and many were drowned. The rest were taken to England and sent over in a merchant vessel to this country, and it is known that they were five months on the sea, when the ship sprung a leak which could not be found, compelling all on board to labor at the pumps for seven days and nights. At last they were overtaken by a ship bound for Charleston, when the Captain of the latter took off sixteen families with the necessary provisions and nothing else, soon after which the ship went down while the rescued ones reached Carolina."

From The Pennsylvania Berichte, Philadelphia, August 16, 1756:

"A ship having arrived from Ireland with servants, some artisans, those interested can call on Thomas Gardens, at Mr. Parnell's wharf, or on the Captain Nathanael Ambler on the ship. They are Irish."

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, November 9, 1764: "German Arrivals.

"To-day the ship Boston, Captain Mathem Carr, arrived from Rotterdam, with several hundred Germans. Among them are all kinds of mechanics, day laborers and young people, men as well as women, and boys and girls. All those who desire to procure such servants are requested to call to David Rundle, on Front Street."

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, December 14, 1773:

"To be sold. A Dutch Apprentice lad, who has five years and three months to serve; he has been brought up to the tailor's business. Can work well."

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, January 18, 1774: "German People.

"There are still 50 or 60 German persons newly arrived from Germany. They can be found with the widow Kriderin, at the sign of the Golden Swan. Among them are two Schoolmasters, Mechanics, Farmers, also young children as well as boys and girls. They are desirous of serving for their passage money."
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania-German Farm Life. Making Cider for Home Use.

From The Pennsylvania Staatsbote, April 25, 1785:

"For sale, a bound German maid-servant. She is a strong, fresh and sound person, and is not sold because of any defect, but only because she is unsuited to the work she is engaged in. She understands all kinds of farm labor, is very affable and suitable for a hotel. She still has five years to serve."

Not only farmers and mechanics were among these people, but students and schoolmasters also came into this work-market. Pastor Kunze tells us that he himself had this experience: A student who arrived was secured, and with his help a Latin school was started. 128 In 1793 the elders of the Lutheran and Reformed church at Hamburg, Berks county, secured a schoolmaster, John Friedrich Schock, who served them three years and four months, in consideration of having his passage money paid, and receiving the customary outfit (gebr„uchlichen Freiheits Kleidung) at the end of his term of service.

As an example of the manner in which the arrivals of ships bringing German passengers whose passage money was unpaid, was brought to public attention, I quote the following announcement from Bradford's Journal for September 29, 1773:

"German Passengers.

"Just arrived in the ship Britannia, James Peter, Master. A number of healthy German Passengers, chiefly young people, whose freights are to be paid to Joshua Fisher and Sons, or to the Master on board the Ship lying off the draw-bridge."

From Rupp's collection of names I find this ship had reached Philadelphia eleven days before the advertisement appeared in the newspaper. A reasonable inference is that at that particular time the Redemptioner market was not as brisk as it might have been, and that special efforts were necessary to work off the human cargo.