The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775


The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775

The story of the German immigration to Pennsylvania in the 17th and 18th centuries, and since, forms one of the most interesting and notable chapters in the history of the colonization of the New World. For many decades its importance and significance was not recognized or understood even by those who formed part and parcel of it. It is only within a recent period that it has received the attention it deserves. During the past few years a dozen books on this and germane subjects have been written and published and several more will be issued before the year's close.

Perhaps the main factor in directing attention to this needed work was the organization of the Pennsylvania-German Society in 1891. The enterprise of a few enthusiastic men resulted in arousing an interest in the subject unknown before. Their action met with a hearty response from Pennsylvanians of German descent in all parts of the country, and while to-day it may not stand first in actual membership, the Society is certainly far in advance of every similar organization in the land in the amount of excellent work it has done towards carrying out the purposes of its organization, and in placing the German element in the colonization of Pennsylvania in its proper light before the world. Its contributions to the literature of the subject have received recognition and praise on two continents. The "Slumbering Giant," as the German element in Pennsylvania has been aptly called, has at last been aroused to a consciousness of his might and importance, his birthright and inheritance, and manifests a determination to assert his claims to the same.

The question of the German influence in the physical, political and intellectual upbuilding of this Commonwealth is of special interest to those of German ancestry. It has not yet been fully worked out but the present day is radiant with promise. The following chapters are offered as presenting some of the "lights and shadows" accompanying this immigration least familiar to the general reader.

It affords me much pleasure and satisfaction to make grateful acknowledgment to Julius F. Sachse, Esq., for the excellent original illustrations he has prepared to accompany this volume; they not only add much to its attractiveness, but have, in addition, an historical value all their own.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775

F. R. D.

Lancaster, October, 1900.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter I.

Chapter I.

Our Sources of Information Relative to the German Immigration, and where they are Defective or Altogether Absent.-Extensive Character of that Immigration not Realized in the Beginning. "I hear the tread of pioneers, Of nations yet to be; The first low wash of waves where soon Shall roll a human sea. "The rudiments of empire here, Are plastic yet and warm; The chaos of a mighty world Is rounding into form."

It must be conceded that the materials, both written and traditional, along many lines of the history of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are abundant and, for the most part, thoroughly reliable. Its founder was himself a university man, ready with tongue and pen, and the writer of many pamphlets, and his selection of agents, assistants and advisers proves him to have had a natural preference for cultured and scholarly men to aid him in carrying out his views for the advancement of his province. His selection of the youthful but scholarly Logan, for more than a generation his tried and trusty Secretary, Griffith Owen, Samuel Carpenter and others, seems to show the importance he attached to having men of culture about him to forward his wise and enlightened schemes of government and commonwealth-building. It was in a large measure due to these men, along with himself, that the mass of written material at the command of the diligent historian of to-day is so full and so accessible.

Then, too, time has dealt kindly with our early records. Much has undoubtedly been lost or destroyed, or, mayhap, is still buried in unsuspected and neglected depositories; but that which has disappeared or failed to appear must of necessity be only a fractional part of the whole. We have no reason to believe that any material of supreme importance to a reasonably full record of our provincial period-any lost books of Livy, so to speak-has perished from our annals. The chain of evidence along most lines of investigation is as complete and unbroken as we have a right to expect. It is not to be expected that there should not be a hiatus here and there, something to be wished for, something that seems to be needed along a stretch of time covering more than two hundred years of the fortunes, the trials and triumphs of the most conglomerate people that ever built up a free and independent State in modern times. But we may congratulate ourselves that our records, even back to our beginnings, are so full, and that with them as faithful guides we can sit down and build up anew upon the printed page the continuous story of the men who laid deep and strong the civil, social, religious and political foundations of Pennsylvania.

And yet there is one chapter, and that a very important one, from which we turn with regret, because while it deeply concerns all men of German, Swiss and Huguenot ancestry, it is the one most needed to throw light on the arrival of the first comers, the men who came here from the Rhine provinces during the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Of the many thousands that found their way across the broad Atlantic to Pennsylvania during that period, only a small portion brought written records with them, or took measures to prepare and preserve them after their arrival. The more highly educated did not neglect this obligation to posterity. Still others brought with them that most precious of all their household treasures, the heavy, oak-lidded German Bible, wherein the Old World pastor had with scrupulous care recorded the brief life and death record of the family. Most precious heirlooms are these household treasures to-day to the few so fortunate as to have them. But an infinitely greater number, descendants of those who had not the learning of the schools and who were incapable of preparing such memorials for themselves, left no such records for their descendants to fall back upon, and the latter have in consequence been left to sail about upon the broad sea of doubt and uncertainty, unable to obtain their bearings or find their moorings.

It is here that the historiographer of the "Immigration of the Germans through the port of Philadelphia" finds himself confronted with almost insuperable difficulties. During the period between 1683 and 1727, the landmarks that could and should guide him are not to be found. They have not been obliterated; they were never erected, and the perplexed chronicler sails to and fro over that unknown and uncharted sea of our provincial history, vainly endeavoring to pick up and preserve the flotsam which accident, rather than design, may have cast into his pathway. No wonder that to-day ten thousand men and women of German ancestry are tireless in their search for the floating threads, the missing links that are needed to bind them to the unknown kindred in the Fatherland, but which in many instances have seemingly been lost forever.

When the first German settlers came to Pennsylvania, and in what numbers, and under what circumstances, are questions more easily asked than answered. Besides, it would perhaps be more interesting than profitable, for they left no permanent settlements, left no impress upon the future of the Province and may therefore be dismissed
Caption: Arms of Sweden. with a mere allusion. The settlements planted by Gustavus Adolphus and his illustrious minister Oxensteirna on the Delaware in 1638, and later, although under the auspices of the Swedish king, contained a large infusion of Germans, to whom unusual inducements were offered. The second Governor of that little colony, Johannes Printz, was a Holsteiner, and brought with him a considerable number of Pommeranian families. These facts are ample to establish the presence of German settlers in Pennsylvania long before Pastorius led his colony of Crefelders to Germantown. Even as these pages are running through the press a letter has been found in Germany, through the efforts of a member of the Pennsylvania-German Society, 1 written from Germantown itself by one of the Op den Graeff brothers, dated February 12, 1684, in which the presence of a German Reformed congregation in that locality is announced at the time when the Pastorius colony was established. Who these were, whence they came, how long they had been there, and kindred questions may perhaps never be revealed, but the general subject is nevertheless a most interesting one.

The story of the first strictly German settlement in Pennsylvania, and of the men and women who composed it, has recently been so fully and so ably written as to leave nothing further to be desired. 2 Owing to circumstances which it is not necessary to recount in this place, the existing records were ample to prepare the story of the beginnings of that mighty Teutonic wave of immigration which, commencing with that colony of less than two score members in 1683, continued to come in an ever-increasing volume until it has outgrown and in a measure displaced some of the other nationalities which preceded it, and which was destined eventually to outnumber all the rest, a pre‰minence it has never lost, but which is to-day as marked and lasting as at any previous period in our history. Well have the results of the past two hundred years fulfilled the promise of that earlier day when Francis Daniel Pastorius and his earnest compatriots established their thriving settlement upon the verdant slopes of Germantown.

At the beginning of the German immigration, the wonderful dimensions it was destined to attain in the course of time seem not to have dawned upon anyone either in the Old World or the New. It was of gradual growth and it was not until nearly two score years after the founding of the Province that even an organized effort was made to take an account of the names and numbers of the Germans who landed on these shores. But although fear then did what should have been done from the beginning, the records made were far from complete. We have the names of most of the new comers, know the names of most of the vessels that brought them over, and in some instances the ages of the immigrants, but what to-day seems almost as essential as either of these, we cannot tell in the majority of cases the locality whence they came. They came from every portion of the German Empire; many from Switzerland; others were of French extraction, but who had for a generation or more been radicated in the cantons of Switzerland
Caption: Signature of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. or in the Netherlands, whence, after acquiring the language of those countries, they finally made their way to the shores of the Delaware. In many instances family traditions preserved through after generations the precise name of the Old World home. Fortunate indeed are those who brought with them authenticating documents covering the birthplace, ancestry, age and other valuable items of family history. But the number of such is comparatively small when compared with the entire number of arrivals. How gratefully would such information be appreciated today
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. (Born Dec. 9 1594; Died Nov. 16 1632.) From painting at historical society of pensylyania. by the thousands of German ancestry, who in their search for information covering these and other points find that their ancestors were among the ten or the fifty of the same name who came to America in the eighteenth century, but which they were or whence they came must ever remain a sealed book to them. Right here is where our historical annals are most defective. There should have been a complete registration from the beginning. Lacking that, ten thousand men and women of German lineage are to-day vainly longing for the information which in all human probability will ever remain irrecoverable.
Caption: Arms of the Holy Roman Empire.

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter II.

Chapter II.

Causes Leading to the Migration to Pennsylvania.-Penn Favorably Known in Germany.-Descriptive Accounts of the Province Published in Many Languages and Widely Circulated. "There is nothing that solidifies and strengthens a nation like the reading of the nation's own history, whether that history is recorded or embodied in customs, institutions and monuments."

Although the causes responsible for the German immigration to Pennsylvania are to-day well understood, it will nevertheless be in order to refer to them briefly at the outset of this narrative. They were various and concurrent. There was a spirit of unrest and dissatisfaction throughout Europe and especially in Germany. That continent had been almost continuously torn by devastating wars for a hundred years previously. Destruction and desolation had been carried into millions of homes. In almost every kingdom and principality the tramp of the invader had been heard, and wherever he appeared ruin followed in his tracks by day, and his incendiary torch marked his course by night. The peasant was no more considered in this clash of arms than the cattle in his fields. Like them he was valued only for what he was worth to his lord and master, whoever that might be. He was pressed into the ranks whenever his services were needed, while his substance was seized and converted to the public use. To eke out a scanty existence where the fates had located him without hope of betterment or material progression seemed the aim and end of his being. To rise from the plane of life to which he was born was a blessing vouchsafed to few. Generations of oppression and penury had in too many cases dwarfed the humanity within his soul, and he could only in exceptional cases look forward to anything better or higher.

But as the night of oppression and wrong was nearing its zenith, the light of a new and a better day was breaking. The fateful voyage of Columbus changed the fate and fortunes of two continents. It cleared the way for the era of maritime adventure which followed it at once. Western Europe arose and from the Iberian to the Scandinavian peninsulas the nations embarked upon a career of colonial enterprise. The marvellous tales told by the Genoese sailor of the new lands beyond the great ocean spread throughout the nations even more rapidly than the Fiery Cross among the ancient Highlanders of Scotland, and each one entered upon the game of seizing whatsoever it could of the spoils that seemed to await the earliest comer. England, Spain, The Netherlands, Sweden and France at once entered upon the work of seizure and division.

What a boundless field for enterprise, adventure and wealth was thus opened up to the cupidity of nations and of individuals, and how quickly they availed themselves of the opportunity! Colonists are needed to found colonies and at once every available agency was employed to make these new lands profitable to their new owners. Government companies were chartered, expeditions were authorized, princely land grants were made to individuals and each and all of these offered inducements to the lower ranks in life, the husbandmen, the mechanics and men of all work to enlist themselves in these new enterprises. Of course the most attractive inducements were held out to set this spirit of emigration in motion. The allurements of the promoter of the present day hardly surpass, in their false attractiveness, the fairy tales held up before the starving millions of the Old World by the Land Companies and other schemers whose interests lay in the numbers they could induce to cross the Atlantic and till their lands and thus make them valuable.

It would require pages to tell this part of my subject in all its fullness. The printing press, that greatest of all the agents in the world's civilization, was already held at its true value. The prospectus of to-day, it is true, was not yet known, but in its stead the booklet was equally effective. Scores of small pamphlets of from ten to one hundred or more pages each were written, printed and scattered throughout almost every country in Europe. 3

Concerning Pennsylvania.

To William Penn, and especially to his trusted agent Benjamin Furly, must be credited the honor of diverting by far the largest part of the German emigration to America, to his own Province. This fact has in recent years been so clearly demonstrated as to receive universal recognition. A chain of fortuitous circumstances seems to have been forged in the Divine workshop linking a series of events that finally culminated in the most remarkable, as it is also the most interesting, migration of a people from one country to another, although separated by thousands of miles of watery waste, which the world has ever seen.

Allusion has already been made to the crushed, oppressed and poverty-stricken character of the peasantry in certain parts of Germany, notably in the Rhine provinces, commonly known as the Palatinate. Religious persecutions were carried out against them even more relentlessly than the red hand of domestic and foreign wars. To a people ready to sacrifice and suffer all for conscience sake, the persecution by creed was as unbearable as that which despoiled them of their homes and their substance. Among these people thus affected, came in the year 1671 and again in 1677, a man of humble yet stately mien, one who preached the doctrines of peace and good will to men. He too had passed
Caption: Arms of Penn. through the tribulations of persecution for conscience sake. He could enter into the true inwardness of the men of the Palatinate, condole, soothe and encourage. It was William Penn, the Quaker, whose religious tenets they found in comparison differed little from those held by the followers of Menno Simon, which was in itself a strong bond of sympathy. Penn's heart went out to these resolute but amiable people. Still another bond, one of kinship, drew them to him. His mother, Margaret Jasper, was a Dutch woman and it has been alleged that Penn spoke and wrote in Dutch and in German also, although this is not certain. There are few stronger ties than those of language and this, perhaps, was not wanting.

At the period of his travels through Germany, Penn had not yet acquired the ownership of Pennsylvania; it came four years after his last visit. Naturally, one of the first things he undertook was to secure colonists for his newly-acquired province. The attention of Englishmen prior to that period had been directed to New England, to Maryland, Virginia, and the young colonies to the south of her. The Quakers, it is true, rallied around him and they were his earliest adherents, and his was for a time a Quaker colony. But Penn was a man of broad and enlightened views. He cared little to what nationality his people belonged provided they were otherwise desirable. Nor creed nor birth nor color was excluded from the laws he formulated in 1682. 4

A recent writer has referred to the influence exercised by the personality of Penn upon the Germans in the Rhine provinces in these words: "To all of them the news in 1681 that the tall young Englishman who four years before had passed through the Rhine country, preaching a doctrine of religious life not very different from that of Menno Simon, was now the proprietor in America of a vast region-greater than all Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Baden together-and that he had invited them to come and live there, without wars and persecutions, under laws which they should share in making-such news must indeed have roused and stirred many a discouraged peasant house-hold." 5

An earlier author wrote: "It has ever been the policy of our government (Pennsylvania), before and since the Revolution, and the disposition of our people to receive all sober emigrants with open arms, and to give them immediately the free exercise of their trades and occupations, and of their religion." 6

It was this liberal spirit that at once induced him to turn towards his erstwhile friends in Germany. They, next to his own Quaker friends in England, were nearest his heart, and accordingly we find that among his first efforts to secure colonists were those directed towards Germany. He made them acquainted with his territory in America. He appointed agents to procure emigrants. Benjamin Furly, an English Separatist, was perhaps the principal and most active of these and to him a large measure of credit is due for giving direction to the rising tide of Teutonic immigration. As early as March 10, 1682, he had sold several 5,000-acre tracts of land to merchants of Crefeld. This, it will be seen, was before Penn had himself visited his princely domain. In 1683 the elder Pastorius, as agent for a number of German friends, bought 25,000 acres, and on these the town of Germantown was soon after located.

That was the beginning, and thenceforward many other agencies were at work to increase the number of German immigrants. The Frankfort Land Company did its utmost to attract settlers to its lands. Such colonists as
Caption: Fett Amsel. (Blackbird) domestic fat lamp, on stand. were already here wrote home attractive accounts of the new home they had found in the forests of Pennsylvania. No one, however, was more industriously engaged in this work than Penn himself. As early as 1681 he issued a pamphlet giving information concerning his province to such as wished "to transport themselves or servants into those parts." German and Dutch translations were also printed and scattered broadcast through the Low Countries and Germany. In 1682 he sent out in English and German his Brief Account of the Province of Pennsylvania. Another description of his province was issued in English, Dutch, German and French in 1684. But his were not the only pamphlets sent out. Thomas Budd published an account in English in 1685; Cornelius Bom one in Dutch in the same year; Dr. Moore one in English in 1687; the elder Pastorius one in German in 1692; Gabriel Thomas' well-known Account came out in English and German in 1698 and had an excellent effect, as had also Daniel Falkner's Curiouse Information, published in Frankfort and Leipzig in 1702. 7

 The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter III.

Penn's Own Description of His Province, in which its Advantages and Attractions are Fully and Minutely Set Forth for the Benefit of Intending Emigrants. "Bald zienen sie im fernen Westen Des leichten Bretterhauses Wand; Bald reicht sie mden braunen G„sten, Voll frischen Trunkes, eure Hand. "Wie wird das Bild der alten Tage Durch eure Tr„ume gl„nzend weh'n! Gleich einer Stillen, frommen Sage Wird es euch vor der Seele steh'n."

In the preceding chapter reference has been made to some of the early literature sent out by Penn and others concerning Pennsylvania. None is more attractive and interesting than the one entitled A Further Account of the Province of Pennsylvania and its Inhabitants. For the Satisfaction of those that are (Adventurers) and inclined to be so, written by Penn himself and published in 1685. It is full yet concise and, as will be seen, very fairly represents the actual condition of things as they existed in the Province at that time. As I know of no better account, I have reproduced it almost in its entirety. There can be no manner of doubt that, scattered throughout Central and Western Europe in various languages, it was a mighty factor in directing immigration from the Fatherland towards Pennsylvania.

Of the Produce of the Earth.

1. The EARTH, by God's blessing, has more than answered our expectation; the poorest places in our Judgment producing large Crops of Garden Stuff and Grain. And though our Ground has not generally the symptoms of the fat Necks that lie upon Salt Waters in Provinces Southern of us, our Grain is thought to Excell and our Crops to be as large. We have had the mark of the good Ground amongst us from Thirty to Sixty fold of English Corn.

2. The Land requires less seed: Three pecks of Wheat sow an acre, a Bushel at most, and some have had the increase I have mention'd.

3. Upon Tryal we find that the Corn and Roots that grow in England thrive very well there, as Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats, Buck-Wheat, Pease, Beans, Cabbages, Turnips, Carrots, Parsnups, Colleflowers, Asparagus, Onions, Charlots, Garlick, and Irish Potatoes; we have also the Spanish and very good RICE, which do not grow here.

4. Our low lands are excellent for Rape and Hemp and Flax. A Tryal has been made, and of the two last there is a considerable quantity Dress'd Yearly.

5. The Weeds of our Woods feed our Cattle to the Market as well as Dary. I have seen fat Bullocks brought thence to Market before Mid Summer. Our Swamps or Marshes yield us course Hay for the Winter.
Caption: Penn's "Brief Account." Title-Page of Penn's Brief Account, 1682.

6. English GRASS SEED takes well, which will give us fatting Hay in time. Of this I made an Experiment in my own Court Yard, upon sand that was dug out of my Cellar, with seed that had lain in a Cask open to the weather two Winters and a Summer; I caus'd it to be soun in the beginning of the month called April, and a fortnight before Midsummer it was fit to Mow. It grew very thick: But I ordered it to be fed, being in the nature of a Grass Platt, on purpose to see if the roots lay firm: And though it had been meer sand, cast out of the Cellar but a Year before, the seed took such Root and held the earth so fast, and fastened itself so well in the Earth, that it held fast and fed like old English Ground. I mention this, to confute the Objections that lie against those Parts, as that, first, English Grass would not grow; next, not enough to mow; and lastly, not firm enough to feed, from the Levity of the Mould.

7. All sorts of English fruits that have been tryed take mighty well for the time: The Peach, Excellent on standers, and in great quantities: They sun dry them, and lay them up in lofts, as we do roots here, and stew them with Meat in Winter time. Mus Mellons and Water Mellons are raised there, with as little care as Pumpkins in England. The Vine especially, prevails, which grows everywhere; and upon experience of some French People from Rochel and the Isle of Rhee, GOOD WINE may be made there, especially when the Earth and Stem are fin'd and civiliz'd by culture. We hope that good skill in our most Southern Parts will yield us several of the Straights Commodities, especially Oyle, Dates, Figs, Almonds, Raisins and Currans.

Of the Produce of Our Waters.

1. Mighty WHALES roll upon the Coast, near the Mouth of the Bay of Deleware. Eleven caught and workt into Oyl one Season. We justly hope a considerable profit by a Whalery; they being so numerous and the Shore so suitable.

2. Sturgeon play continually in our Rivers in Summer: And though the way of cureing them be not generally known, yet by a Reciept I had of one Collins, that related to the Company of the Royal Fishery, I did so well preserve some, that I had them good here three months of the Summer, and brought some of the same so for England.

3. Alloes, as they call them in France, the Jews Allice, and our Ignorants, Shads are excellent Fish, and of the bigness of our largest Carp: They are so Plentiful, that Captain Smyth's Overseer at the Skulkil, drew 600 and odd at one Draught; 300 is no wonder; 100 familiarly. They are excellent Pickeled or Smok'd, as well as boyld fresh: They are caught by nets only.

4. ROCK are somewhat rounder and longer, also a whiter fish, little inferior in relish to our Mallet. We have them almost in the like plenty. These are often Barrell'd like Cod, and not much inferior for their spending. Of both these the Inhabitants increase their Winter Store: These are caught by Nets, Hooks and Speers. * * *

There are abundance of lesser fish to be caught of pleasure, but they gint not cost, as those I have mentioned, neither in Magnitude nor Number, except the Herring, which swarm in such Shoales that it is hardly Credible; in little Creeks they almost shovel them up in their tubs. There is the Catfish or Flathead, Lampry, Eale, Trout, Perch, black and white Smelt, Sunfish, etc.: also Oysters, Cockles, Cunks, Crabs, Mussles, Mannanoses.

Of Provision in General.

1. It has been often said we were starv'd for want of food; some were apt to suggest their fears, others to insinuate their prejudices, and when this was contradicted, and they assur'd we had plenty, both of Bread, Fish and Flesh, then 'twas objected that we were forc't to fetch it from other places at great Charges: but neither is all this true, tho all the World will think we must either carry Provision with us, or get it of the Neighborhood till we had gotten Houses over our heads and a little Land in tillage, we fetcht none, nor were we wholly helpt by Neighbors; The Old Inhabitants supplied us with most of the Corn we wanted, and a good share of Pork and Beef: 'tis true New York, New England and Road Island did with their provisions fetch our Goods and Money, but at such Rates that some for almost what they gave, and others carried their provisions back, expecting a better Market neerer, which showed no scarcity, and that we were not totally destitute on our own River. But if my advice be of any Value I would have them to buy still, and not weaken their Herds, by Killing their Young Stock too soon.

2. But the right measure of information must be the proportion of value of Provisions there, to what they are in more planted and mature Colonies. Beef is commonly sold at the rate of two pence per pound; and Pork for two pence half penny; Veal and Mutton at three pence or three pence half penny, that Country money; an English shilling going for fifteen pence. Grain sells by the Bushel; Wheat at four shillings; Rye, and excellent good, at three shillings; Barley two shillings six pence; Indian Corn, two shillings six pence; Oats, two shillings, in that money still, which in a new Country, where Grain is so much wanted for feed, as for food, cannot be called dear, and especially if we consider the Consumption of many of the new Commers.

3. There is so great an increase of Grain by the dilligent application of People to Husbandry, that within three Years, some Plantations have got Twenty Acres in Corn, some Forty, some Fifty.

4. They are very careful to increase their stock, and get into Daries as fast as they can. They already make good Butter and Cheese. A good Cow and Calf by her side may be worth three pounds sterling, in goods at first Cost. A pare of Working Oxen, eight pounds: a pare of fat ones, Little more, and a plain Breeding Mare about five pounds sterl.

5. For Fish, it is brought to the Door, both fresh and salt. Six Alloes or Rocks for lwelve pence; and salt fish at three fardings per pound, Oysters at 28 per bushel.

6. Our DRINK has been Beer and Punch, made of Rum and Water: Our Beer was mostly made of molasses, which well boyld, with Sassafras or Pine infused into it, makes very tollerable drink; but now they make Mault, and Mault Drink begins to be common, especially at the Ordinaries and the Houses of the more substantial People. In our great Toun there is an able Man, that has set up a large Brew House, in order to furnish the People with good Drink, both there, and up and down the River."

This Further Account is too lengthy to be quoted in full here. He quotes a long letter written by one who had been in the Province and describes the existing conditions in the most favorable language. After this he resumes his own narrative, from which we make another extract.

"1. It is agreed on all hands, that the Poor are the Hands and Feet of the Rich. It is their labour that Improves Countries; and to encourage them, is to promote the real benefit of the publick. Now as there are abundance of these people in many parts of Europc, extreamly desirous of going to America; so the way of helping them thither, or when there, and the return thereof to the Disbursers, will prove what I say to be true."

Then follow his several schemes for the settlement of immigrants upon his lands. The amount of lands to be allotted to each family; the improvements that will be built for them, the stock and farming tools that will be supplied, even their seed for the first year's harvest; this is followed by the easy terms upon which payment may be made, this for those who have the means to transport themselves thither, but no more. Still another plan provides for such as are destitute of any resources. To each family of such 100 acres are allotted, with £15 in hand before starting to provide adequately for the journey.

All in all, as we read over this scheme of colonization it appeals to our hearts and better natures as the wisest as well as most generous that had ever appeared among men. Plato's Republic, and Sir Thomas More's Utopia present nothing with all their wealth of ideal beneficence more striking than this practical, every-day humanitarianism of William Penn.

Times for Making the Voyage.

While it was possible for ships to reach and leave Philadelphia during every month in the year, save occasionally during the inclement season of mid-winter, the late winter and autumn months were generally chosen for the departure from Europe. We accordingly find the ship arrivals were most numerous in early spring and late in the fall. April and May, September, October and November witnessed the largest influx of immigrants during the year.
Caption: German Immigration Into Pennsylvania. Of such moment was this matter that Penn himself devotes a chapter in one of his various pamphlets, addressed to such as were casting their eyes across the Atlantic, to the proper season for the experiment. I quote what he says on this subject:

"Of the Seasons of Going, and Usual Time of Passage.

"1. Tho Ships go hence at all times of the Year, it must be acknowledged, that to go so as to arrive at Spring or Fall, is best. For the Summer may be of the hottest, for fresh Commers, and in the Winter, the wind that prevails, is the North West, and that blows off the Coast, so that sometimes it is difficult to enter the Capes.

"2. I propose, therefore, that Ships go hence (from Europe) about the middle of the moneths call'd February and August, which allowing two months for passage reaches in time enough to plant in the Spring such things as are carried hence to plant, and in the Fall to get a small Cottage, and clear some Land against next Spring. I have made a discovery of about a hundred Miles West, and find those back Lands richer in Soyl, Woods and Fountains, than that by Deleware; especially upon the Susquehanna River.

"3. I must confess I prefer the Fall to come thither, as believing it more healthy to be followed with Winter than Summer; tho, through the great goodness and mercy of God we have had an extraordinary portion of health, for so new and numerous a Colony, notwithstanding we have not been so regular in time.

"4. The Passage is not to be set by any man; for Ships will be quicker and slower, some have been four months, and some but one and as often. Generally between six and nine weeks. One year, of four and twenty Sayl, I think, there was not three above nine, and there was one or two under six weeks in the passage.

"5. To render it more healthy, it is good to keep as much upon Deck as may be; for the Air helps against the offensive smells of a Crowd, and a close place. Also to Scrape often the Cabbins, under the Beds; and either carry store of Rue and Wormwood; and some Rosemary, or often sprinkle Vinegar about the Cabbin. Pitch burnt, is not amiss sometimes against faintness and infectious scents. I speak my experience for the benefit and direction that may need it." 8

The very minuteness with which every detail is given indicates the desire to leave no room for misunderstandings. He was anxious that there should be no cause for complaint. His very frankness must have convinced his readers and won them. All this became apparent to the new immigrant and this was no doubt one of the principal reasons why the reports sent back to Germany were almost universally favorable, and proved instrumental in keeping up the immigration movement so many years.

Peter Kalm, the Swedish botanist and traveller, who visited America in 1748, bears strong evidence to the fact that the large immigration of Germans was in a great measure due to the solicitation of those already here. He says: "The Germans wrote to their relatives and friends and advised them to come to America; not to New York where the government had shown itself to be unjust. This advice had so much influence that the Germans who after-wards went in great numbers to North America constantly avoided New York, and always went to Philadelphia. It sometimes happened that they were forced to go on board such ships as were bound for New York, but they were scarcely got on shore before they hastened to Pennsylvania, in sight of all the inhabitants of New York." 9

The historian Proud, writing in 1798, says that "William Penn, both in Person and writing, published in Germany, first gave them information that there was liberty of conscience in Pennsylvania, and that everyone might live there without molestation. Some of them about the year 1698, others in 1706, 1709 and 1711, partly for conscience sake, and partly for their temporal interests, removed thither, where they say they found their expectations fully answered, enjoying liberty of conscience according to their desire, with the benefits of a plentiful country. With this they acquainted their friends in Germany; in consequence of which many of them in the year 1717, etc., removed to Pennsylvania." 10

Another of our historians explicitly states that "from the writings and discourses of William Penn during his German travels they (the Germans) obtained a knowledge of Pennsylvania. Some of them removed to the Province in 1683, others in 1706-1709 and 1711. Their reports induced many to follow them in 1717." 11

The German Immigration into Pennsylvania though the Port of Philadelphia: 1700-1775
Chapter IV.

Efforts to Secure Colonists, Successful.-Alarm Created by their Great Numbers From Germany.-System of Registration Adopted.-Arrival of many Ships.-Their Names, Numbers and Places of Departure. "Vaterland! theurer Freund, lebt wohl! In dem es nach der Fremde soll: Ein anderes Land, eine and're Luft Die uns mit Ernst entgegen ruft; Kommt, kommt, hier solt ihr ruhig seyn Ungest”rt, frei von leibes Pein." "O Sprecht! warum zogt ihr von dannen? Das Neckarthal hat Wein und Korn; Der Schwarzwald steht voll finstrer Tannen? Im Spessart klingt des Žlplers Horn."

White the various measures put into operation by the proprietor to secure colonists were at once active and persistent, the results for a time were unimportant so far as immigration from Germany was concerned. The Crefeld colony under Francis Daniel Pastorius began its settlement at Germantown in 1683. The accessions to that early body were not numerous during the remainder of the seventeenth century. Still, a few came each year. Johannes Kelpius with his band of 40 pietists appears to have been among the first to arrive after the Crefelders; he came in 1694. Daniel Falkner brought additions in 1704. "In 1708-1709-1710 to 1720 thousands of them emigrated. From 1720 to 1725 the number increased and settled principally in Montgomery, Berks and Lancaster counties. In 1719 Jonathan Dickinson wrote, `we are daily expecting ships from London which bring over Palatines, in number about six or seven thousand. We had a parcel who came out about five years ago, who purchased land about sixty miles west of Philadelphia, and proved quiet and industrious.'" 12

This latter colony evidently refers to the little band of Mennonites, perhaps I should say Swiss-Huguenots, who came over in 1708 or 1709 and located themselves in the Pequea Valley, Lancaster county, forming the first settlement of Europeans within that County. 13 Some members of that colony almost immediately returned to Germany to bring over relatives and friends, and between the years 1711 and 1717, and for some years later there were large accessions to the colony. It was one of the most substantial and successful settlements ever made in Pennsylvania. Even then, as in later years, most of the colonists came from the Palatinate, which sent forth her children from her burned cities and devastated fields, their faces turned towards the land of promise. Just how many Germans landed at the port of Philadelphia prior to the passage of the registry law of 1727 is unknown, but the number was undoubtedly large as may be inferred from the quotation above from Jonathan Dickinson. It was not until 1707 however that Germans in considerable numbers began arriving. From that time onward the number increased from year to year, and ten years later began to attract the attention of the Provincial Government.

The country seemed to be filling up with Germans, and as a result of the alarm that was caused thereby, Governor William Keith soon after his arrival, on September 7, 1717, observed to the Provincial Council sitting at Philadelphia "that great numbers of foreigners from Germany, strangers to our Languages and Constitutions, having lately been imported into this Province daily dispersed themselves immediately after Landing, without producing any Certificates, from whence they came or what they were; and as they seemed to have first Landed in Britain, and afterwards to have left it Without any License from the Government, or so much as their Knowledge, so in the same manner they behaved here, without making the least application to himself or to any of the magistrates; That as this Practice might be of very dangerous Consequence, since by the same method any number of foreigners from any nation whatever, as well Enemys as friends, might throw themselves upon us: The Governor, therefore, thought it requisite that this matter should be Considered, & 'tis ordered thereupon, that all the masters of vessels who have lately imported any of these fforeigners be summoned to appear at this Board, to Render an acct. of the number and Characters of the Passengers respectively from Britain; That all those who are already Landed be required by a Proclamation, to be issued for that purpose, to Repair within the space of one month to some Magistrate, particularly to the Recorder of this City (Philadelphia), to take such Oaths appointed by Law as are
Caption: One of Penn's Publications. Title-Page of the German version of Penn's letters to the Free Society of Traders. necessary to give assurances of their being well affected to his Majesty and his Government; But because some of these foreigners are said to be Menonists, who cannot for Conscience sake take any Oaths, that those persons be admitted upon their giving any Equivalent assurances in their own way and manner, & that the Naval Officer of this Port be required not to admit any inward bound vessell to an Entry, until the master shall first give an exact List of all their passengers imported by them." 14

The Provincial Council perhaps never did an act that so much deserves the thanks and the gratitude of those of German descent in the State of Pennsylvania to-day as in embodying
Caption: Great Seal of the Province. (Reverse.) the foregoing views in an Act of the Assembly a few years later. It resulted in the registration of the many thousands of German and other immigrants, and these ship masters' lists as we find them to-day in the Colonial Records, Rupp's Thirty Thousand Names, and Volume XVII. of the Second Series of Pennsylvania Archives are a priceless treasure, a veritable storehouse to which thousands of people of German ancestry have gone to find information concerning the names, ages and time of arrival of their ancestors. Never was a government scare so productive of good results.

The order was immediately acted upon. At the next meeting of the Council on September 9, 1717, Capt. Richmond, Capt. Tower and Capt. Eyers waited upon the Board with the lists of the Palatines they had brought over from London, by which it appeared the first had carried one hundred and sixty-four, the second ninety-one and the last one hundred and eight.

There is no evidence however, that I am aware of, that anything further was immediately done towards carrying out the order passed in 1717. The minutes of the Council are silent on the subject for ten full years.

On September 14, 1727, again acting on the Governor's suggestion, a resolution was adopted by the Provincial Council holding shipmasters to a strict accountability and ordering an examination into the matter of bringing aliens into the Province. Here is the Resolution: "That the masters of vessels importing Germans and others from the continent of Europe, shall be examined whether they have leave granted to them by the Court of Great Britain for the importation of these foreigners, and that a List be taken of all these people, their several occupations, and the place from whence they came, and shall be further examined touching their intentions in coming hither; and that a writing be drawn up for them to sign, declaring their allegiance and subjection to the King of Great Britain, and fidelity to the Proprietary of this Province, and that they will demean themselves peaceably towards all his Majesty's subjects, and observe and conform to the Laws of England and the Government of Pennsylvania." 15 The arrival of a ship load of German immigrants on September 21, 1727, appears to have recalled to the Council the action it had decided upon ten years before. At a meeting held on September 21, 1727, the following appears on the minutes:

"A Paper being drawn up to be signed by those Palatines, who should come into this Province with an Intention to settle therein, pursuant to the order of this Board, was this day presented, read & approved, & is in these Words:

"We Subscribers, Natives and late Inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine & Places adjacent, having transported ourselves and Families into this Province of Pennsylvania, a Colony subject to the Crown of Great Britain, in hopes and Expectation of finding a Retreat & peaceful Settlement therein, Do Solemnly promise & Engage, that We will be faithful & bear true Allegiance to his present MAJESTY KING GEORGE THE SECOND, and his Successors Kings of Great Britain, and will be faithfull to the Proprietor of this Province; And that we will demean ourselves peaceably to all His said Majesties Subjects, and strictly observe & conform to the Laws of England and this Province, to the utmost of our Power and best of our understanding."